What’s next for Floyd Mayweather Jr. and Manny Pacquiao?

What’s next for Floyd Mayweather Jr. and Manny Pacquiao?

By Augustine A.

What’s next for Mayweather? After improving to 48-0 with his unanimous-decision triumph Saturday at MGM Grand (judges scored it 118-110, 116-112, 116-112), Mayweather said he plans to fight just once more, in September on Showtime pay-per-view, and then call it a career.


His most likely opponent left the arena beaming. All Amir Khan has to do is beat Chris Algieri later this month. Algieri was knocked down six times by Pacquiao in November in Macao.

Mayweather will be a prohibitive favorite over Khan. He can retire in peace, but he also may feel the tug of opening a new massive arena in Las Vegas in 2016, and pursuing a 50-0 record that would top former heavyweight champion Rocky Marciano’s 49-0 record at retirement.

Mayweather, if you didn’t know, likes to call himself the Best Ever.

2. What’s next for Pacquiao? Likely surgery. His right shoulder, injured in sparring, was re-aggravated in the fourth round, and Pacquiao said he looked in the remaining rounds to find a left-handed knockout punch that he never delivered.

His shoulder injury, to be examined Monday, and then later after he returns to the Philippines, is said to be similar to Kobe Bryant’s.

If he undergoes surgery, he could be out three to eight months, depending on his recovery, and it wouldn’t be surprising to see him move back down to 140 pounds, where he could knock opponents out. He hasn’t done so since 2009.

lRelated Letting Pacquiao fight Mayweather injured dealt damaging blow to boxing’s future
Letting Pacquiao fight Mayweather injured dealt damaging blow to boxing’s future

3. Will there be a rematch? Once they count up all the dollars made by this fight, greed will certainly again enter the equation and that arena-opening date could be it.

Deservedly so, there will be some distaste from consumers following Saturday’s bout, soiled by Pacquiao’s injury talk and Mayweather’s technical performance.

Asked if the outcome left the rematch idea dead, Pacquiao promoter Bob Arum told The Times early Sunday morning, “Don’t say dead.”


4. What’s the next big fight we can look forward to? It’s not scheduled yet, and both guys have fights to win, but a possible late-fall showdown between Mexico’s Saul “Canelo” Alvarez and Puerto Rico’s Miguel Cotto would revive that always popular rivalry.

Floyd Mayweather Jr. is right on the money in beating Manny Pacquiao
Floyd Mayweather Jr. is right on the money in beating Manny Pacquiao
Cotto, who fights Daniel Geale in June, might also get talked into fighting unbeaten knockout king Gennady Golovkin, who fights at the Forum on May 16.

So whoever he picks is the big one.

5. Did Pacquiao’s injury really make a difference? Did the shoulder pain cost him a victory? No. He lost the first three rounds before he said he felt the pain in his dominant fourth.

Pacquiao clearly had problems finding Mayweather and that had nothing to do with his shoulder. Mayweather landed some crisp rights and jabs that kept Pacquiao at bay, as well.

But if he could’ve used his right hook at all, maybe we would’ve seen more rounds like the fourth – more of the type of action that convinced so many to pay $99.95 for the pay-per-view.

6. Is Mayweather the greatest non-heavyweight ever? His resume is impressive, and has him in the same conversation with Sugar Ray Robinson.

Certainly, boxing purists will say Robinson, despite losses on his record, is the greatest. He fought steadily, took on his greatest adversaries repeatedly and was blessed with all of boxing’s most appealing skills.

In this era, Mayweather said he came to realize he couldn’t fight everyone who challenged him throughout a year. He’s waited too long to take on opponents after stepping up to beat Oscar De La Hoya in 2007 – including Pacquiao – but he has now beaten every fighter the experts have said he should take on and deserves deep respect for his work inside the ring.

7. Who will assume the “best” mantle when Mayweather quits? Golovkin is a candidate with his lofty knockout percentage, but he’s 32.

Mayweather defeats Pacquiao by unanimous decision
Mayweather defeats Pacquiao by unanimous decision
Among the younger breed, both of the undercard winners, featherweight world champion Vasyl Lomachenko, and super-bantamweight world champion Leo Santa Cruz, have the potential to reach lofty heights.

If Lomachenko fights Nicholas Walters next, that’s a can’t-miss, and Santa Cruz has to stop being protected right now by his manager Al Haymon and fight Abner Mares and everyone else talented around his weight to let his supreme body-punching skills shine.

8. Will fans have a bad taste after shelling out $100 for a bad fight? Yes, continuing boxing’s reputation for getting everyone’s attention and then letting everyone down.


If Pacquiao was seriously hurt, postpone the fight until he’s healthy. The payments were made on the basis that both men would be 100%. That wasn’t the case.
One fight insider who declined to be identified because of his position said, “Too many people were in too big of a hurry to get paid.”

They could’ve still been paid and staged a bout that might’ve been more competitive, without this cloud over a fight that we waited five-plus years for, yet feels like it was unnecessarily rushed in the end.

Beyond that, nationwide satellite/cable problems or not, it looked stomach-turning to delay the fight’s start by forcing fans to wait as the maximum number of pay-per-view orders could roll in.

Ironically, Magic Johnson was interviewed about the bout during the delay. He knows a thing or two about sticking it to the fans in favor of television revenue.

Killer punch; Pacquiao throws a dangerous punch on Mayweather
Killer punch; Pacquiao throws a dangerous punch on Mayweather

And, in the end, that’s how Saturday’s events made it feel: The fans don’t matter, money does.


MP wants Makerere convocation nullified

MP wants Makerere convocation nullified

By Augustine A.

MUK2Western Uganda Youth Member of Parliament Gerald Karuhanga has asked court to nullify the newly elected Makerere University convocation executive saying the whole electoral process was a sham.

Karuhanga wants court to declare that the election of the MUK convocation executive consisting of 12 people was illegal and therefore null and void.

He is also seeking court orders quashing the Makerere convocation election results that were issued by the academic registrar who also doubles as the returning officer, Alfred Masikye Namoah, on March 30, 2015.

Among other things, he accuses Namoah of withholding the convocation election guidelines until March 28, when it was too late to for it to be of benefit.

Karuhanga claims that Namoah also withheld the electoral roll thus denying them the chance to scrutinize and clean up the voters’ register.

Gerald Karuhanga who contested and lost Makerere University convocation chairmanship poistion

He filed the suit with six other alumni of the university. They include: Chris Niwandinda, Anna Adeke Ebaju, Alex Luganda, Julius Mutabazi, Joshua Rukundo and Gideon Aturinda against Makerere University and Dr. Tanga Odoi.

Other respondents are: Diana Nyago, Deus Kamunyu, Justus Nuwajjuna, Bazilio Kamya, Faith Kirungi, Margaret Najjuka, Juliet Nakalema, Denis Namara, Racheal Olando and Spencer Sabiiti.

Both the applicants and the respondents participated and contested in the 2015/2019 elections of the Makerere University convocation held at the University in March. The respondents were declared winners against the applicants.

Makerere convocation is an association of graduates and staff of MUK created by section 70 (1) of the Universities and other Tertiary Institutions Act 2001 and regulated by the Convocation constitution.

The applicants contend that the Namoah abruptly and unjustifiably cancelled the 23rd general meeting of the convocation and changed the elections venue from the freedom square to the main building which could not cater for the over 20,000 voters.

“He without reasonable excuse failed to convene a meeting of candidates and their agents prior to the elections to agree on the modalities for conducting the convocation elections,” Niwandinda alleged in his affidavit.

The applicants allege that Namoah released a list of ghost names as graduates and university staff without specified particulars like course, name and registration number.

Gerald Karuhanga speaking at the Convocation

“When he realized this anomaly, he made a public declaration that those, whose names are not in the register, should check on his laptop and flash diskette,” Karuhanga said.

The academic registrar and Prof. Jacob Agea who was the presiding officer, are accused of disrupting the electoral process with the latter running away with the voters’ register and ballot papers during the course of elections.

According to the affidavit sworn by Karuhanga, these actions disrupted the whole electoral process and when he asked Namoah to find an urgent solution, he (Namoah) instead called in police to chase away the stranded voters.

Through their lawyers from  center for legal Aid, they allege that Namoah defied the convocation constitution by arbitrarily denying candidates chance to address voters and canvass for votes at the AGM, the requisite electoral roll and the opportunity for voters who turned up to vote in a free and fair elections.

Karuhanga, who referred to the whole process as a sham, is now asking court to set aside the election results of the convocation, and order the academic registrar to organize fresh elections in conformity with the convocation constitution.

The applicants also want an order directing Namoah to prepare and publish a valid elections guideline for the convocation at least 30 days before elections.

They also want an injunction restraining Makerere and its convocation from using the inflated and sham voters’ register during elections.

Makerere University is yet to file their defence. Meanwhile, the case has been set for hearing on April 27, 2015.

CHELSEA are domestic champs

By Augustine A.

che2Chelsea bade farewell to Didier Drogba before coming from behind to beat Sunderland 3-1 and lift the Premier League trophy on a day of celebration, farewells and potential goodbyes.

The title was sealed with three matches to go after a defeat of Crystal Palace and there was a strange atmosphere on the day of Chelsea’s coronation as a Diego Costa penalty and two Loic Remy strikes cancelled out Steven Fletcher’s opener.

chelsea players celebrating
chelsea players celebrating

Drogba announced prior to kick off the match would be his last for the Blues, while Petr Cech played in goal in potentially his final appearance after 11 years as a Chelsea player.

Dick Advocaat may also be leaving Sunderland after steering them to safety at Arsenal on Wednesday night.

Drogba was, bizarrely, carried off by his team-mates after 29 minutes in a pre-planned substitution.

Perhaps distracted by the celebrations, Chelsea were already a goal down as Fletcher headed in Adam Johnson’s corner.

The Black Cats are the only side to have beaten Jose Mourinho’s Chelsea at Stamford Bridge in the Premier League, having won here last term.

This was Mourinho’s 98th home league game as Blues boss and his side responded when Costa, Drogba’s replacement, equalised from the penalty spot for his 20th Premier League goal this term.

Remy, another substitute, struck twice in the final 20 minutes to ensure a 15th win from 19 home games this term.

Chelsea paraded many of their 2004-05 title-winning squad prior to kick-off, although Frank Lampard was saying his farewells to England with Manchester City.

That was Mourinho’s first Premier League and Chelsea’s first championship in 50 years and perhaps he was making a point to his current squad, who he said on Friday had a long way to go to become great

Jose Mourihno, Chelsea Manager coudlnot hide his joy
Jose Mourihno, Chelsea Manager coudlnot hide his joy


Another point was made by a banner in the Matthew Harding End which read: “Players come and go. Legends last forever.”

Drogba is revered after an eight-year first spell which yielded 157 goals in 341 appearances and which concluded with the memorable Champions League win in Munich three years ago.

His season-long second spell has been less fruitful, but he has claimed the Capital One Cup and a fourth Premier League title, Chelsea’s first in five years.

Drogba captained the Blues in an emotional selection, with Eden Hazard fit to start despite requiring emergency dental surgery during the week.

digital revolution is improving journalism and communication

digital revolution is improving journalism and communication

B y Augustine A

The Digital Revolution, known as the Third Industrial Revolution, is the change from analogmechanical, and electronic technology to digital technology which began anywhere from the late 1950s to the late 1970s with the adoption and proliferation of digital computers and digital record keeping that continues to the present day. Journalism is the art of gathering, collecting, and dissemination of information through various mass, media platforms such as radios, televisions, print (news papers, tabloids, magazines, fliers, letters, etc) and also apparently through the new media( internet)

Communication is defined as the process of sending and receiving information as intended by the sender through a channel. This is further termed as effective communication.

Digital journalism also known as online journalism is a contemporary form of journalism where editorial content is distributed via the internet as opposed to publishing via print or broadcast. What constitutes ‘digital journalism’ is debated by scholars. However the primary product of journalism, which is news and features on current affairs, is presented solely or in combination as textaudiovideo and some interactive forms, and disseminated through digital media platforms. It is of a aparamount significance to point out that the digital revolution has indeed had a profound impact of the journalism and communication of today, not only Uganda in particular but also the entire world.

The following are the ways the digital revolution is improving or has improved journalism and communication;

In the first place Digital journalism creates an opportunity for niche audiences, allowing people to have more options as to what to view and read. The interactivity and interface provided by technological tools such as Smartphones, laptops, computers, among others has made target audiences to embrace the revolution as a savior

Digital journalism allows for connection and discussion at levels that print does not offer on its own. People can comment on articles and start discussion boards to discuss articles. Before the Internet, spontaneous discussion between readers who had never met was impossible. The process of discussing a news item is a big portion of what makes for digital journalism. People add to the story and connect with other people who want to discuss the topic. Here a person is able to comment and share his or her opinion with the owner of the content, even like the content or even share the information/discussion with his/her friends

Digital journalism opens up new ways of storytelling; through the technical components of the new medium, digital journalists can provide a variety of media, such as audiovideo, and digital photography. This is has been made possible through the various media platforms such as vimeo, sound cloud, dipity,flickr, projeqt, websites provided and created using wordpress.com among others

Digital journalism represents a revolution of how news is consumed by society. Online sources are able to provide quick, efficient, and accurate reporting of breaking news in a matter of seconds, providing society with a synopsis of events as they occur. Throughout the development of the event, journalists are able to feed online sources the information keeping readers up-to-date in mere seconds. The speed in which a story can be posted can affect the accuracy of the reporting in a way that doesn’t usually happen in print journalism or before the digital revolution. Before the emergence of digital revolution the printing process took much more time, allowing for the discovery and correction of errors.

It has enabled the journalists to be flexible and adjustable to the trending new technologies albeit new hardware or software. With such a help of the revolution, there has been gaps bridged especially hitherto existing gender gaps. For example in Uganda, the preponderance of women in the field such Agnes Nandutu, Faith Ariho, Doreen Komuhangi , etc can be attributed to the digital revolution that not only favors men but also women as well. Thus it doesn’t segregate or discriminate any gender. And this is a robust improvement as far as journalism and communication.

innovaters of the sofware applications
innovaters of the sofware applications

It has also promoted citizen journalism, where every concerned and interested individual regardless of the profession, status, etc  can practice journalism. Since information is power, citizen journalism is an enabling activity to make sure all Ugandans are informed thus developing themselves. This is commonly practiced on social media platforms like face book and what sap where people update us on what’s happening around their environments say death occurrence, accident, party, etc

News consumers must become Web literate and use critical thinking to evaluate the credibility of sources. Because it is possible for anyone to write articles and post them on the Internet, the definition of journalism is changing. Because it is becoming increasingly simple for the average person to have an impact in the news world through tools like blogs and even comments on news stories on reputable news websites, it becomes increasingly difficult to sift through the massive amount of information coming in from the digital area of journalism.

There are great advantages with digital journalism and the new blogging evolution that people are becoming accustomed to, but there are disadvantages. For instance, people are used to what they already know and can’t always catch up quickly with the new technologies in the 21st century. The goals of print and digital journalism are the same, although different tools are needed to function.

The interaction between the writer and consumer is new, and this can be credited to digital journalism. There are many ways to get personal thoughts on the Web. There are some disadvantages to this, however, the main one being factual information. There is a pressing need for accuracy in digital journalism, and until they find a way to press accuracy, they will still face some criticism. Thus one can argue out that although the digital revolution has improved the journalism and communication of today through the provision of a variety of flat forms, enhancing speed in the spread of communications from place to another, vibrancy, remarkable interactivity, compatibility of information from different forms to other forms say for instance from mp3 to mp4, avi, Mpeg, etc, it has nonetheless promoted a lot of vices that are preying on the same profession of journalism .this among others includes plagiarism hence promoting laziness of journalists and communicators.

Secondly, journalists and communicators no longer have to brainstorm like before instead are spoon-fed by the internet. The internet is a son of the digital revolution. To this extent one wonders whether this is an improvement or a destruction of the profession. A situation where training is marred by copy-paste syndrome, then quality is doubtable. Thus with the help of digital revolution that offers opportunity for copy-paste, how can the trainees ensure quality yet the students use technologically advanced gadgets

The revolution has also been partly blamed for spoiling the culture since it has negatively impacted on the morals of the journalists and other communicators. Spread of pornographic content is the point in case. The media was awash with the nude pictures and sex tapes of celebs such as singer Desire Luzinda aka ‘kitone , socialite zari Hussein, even our own news anchor, Sanyu Robinah Mweruka. This exposes the extent to which the digital revolution has either improved but surely it has spoiled the profession and indeed unmasked how unethical practitioners are, today. It is important to point out the since good information can spread very fast using the opportunities provided by the revolution tools such WHATSAP ,YOU TUBE, among others, bad information that affects our morals can also find its way through  the same  platforms.

In conclusion, the digital revolution has had a fundamental change on the journalism and communication profession and practice, however, this seemingly interesting change is a double edged sword with opens eyes of positivity on one side but also sparkling side of negativity on the other hand. What got to be noted, however, it the sheer fact that it has improved how people communicate, enhancing speedy communications, provided a fertile atmosphere for the growth of citizen journalism, created vibrancy and made the field a better to be, but also on the other hand encouraged plagiarism vice, laziness, moral decadence just to mention but a few.


Kendrick Lamar’s ‘Control’ Verse Leaves Hip-Hop Saying ‘Good Lord’

By Augustine A.

Rapper Kendrick Lamar
Rapper Kendrick Lamar

Hip-hop music was built off of competition and Kendrick Lamar gave fans and artists alike a reminder of what it is like to take rap’s battlefield.

On Monday night, Big Sean dropped “Control,” a leftover track originally recorded for his upcoming Hall of Fame, and it featured Jay Electronica and a fiery verse from K-Dot. After proclaiming himself the king of New York (and the west coast) Kendrick name-dropped a gang of his rap friends, but he wasn’t so nice about it.

“I’m usually homeboys with the same n—-s i’m rhymin with/ But this is hip-hop and them n—-s should know what time it is/ And that goes for Jermaine Cole, Big K.R.I.T., Wale/ Pusha T, Meek Mill, A$AP Rocky, Drake/ Big Sean, Jay Electron’, Tyler, Mac Miller/ I got love for you all but I’m tryna murder you n—-s/ Tryna make sure your core fans never heard of you n—-s/ They don’t wanna hear not one more noun or verb from you n—as,” the Black Hippy MC rapped with an extra grit to his already gravelly voice.


“I hear u loud and clear my n—a… @kendricklamar,” Pusha T tweeted right after the song was released.

Here Comes Everyone – a Day of Inspiration and Advocacy at the Network for Public Education Conferance

a good idea



Let me ask you a hypothetical question:

If you could have dinner with any five people in the world, who would they be?

You don’t have to ask me that question. I not only had dinner with them, I spent the whole freaking day with them at the Network for Public Education Conference!

And there were more like 500 of those folks!

Imagine everyone you’ve ever read about in the resistance to corporate education reform.

Imagine them all in one place, standing in line all around you waiting to select a Danish.

Yeah. That was breakfast.

I invited the amazing Pennsylvania blogger Russ Walsh to my table to chat over bagels and coffee.

I told him that I’d been so inspired by his criticism of the Dibels test that I refused to allow my own daughter to take it. He laughed and said it was a mighty responsibility.

We hung…

View original post 803 more words

Arsenal 0-0 Chelsea: Chelsea move within six points of Premier League title

Chelsea remain on course for a fourth Premier League title after a goalless draw with closest rivals Arsenal all-but ended the Gunners’ chances of catching the league leaders.

Referee Michael Oliver proved to be the influential figure in a pulsating first half at the Emirates Stadium as he turned down no more than four penalty claims between the two sides.

Oscar was involved on two occasions as Hector Bellerin and David Ospina brought the Brazilian down in the area, before former Arsenal midfielder Cesc Fabregas was booked for simulation and Gary Cahill was adjudged to have not blocked Santi Cazorla’s shot with his arm.

Didier Drogba replaced Oscar at the interval after the midfielder showed signs of concussion following his collision with Ospina, but he did little to ignite a Chelsea side who seemed content with a point.

David Ospina was fortunate not to see red for challnege on Oscar

Mesut Ozil and substitute Danny Welbeck spurned glorious chances in the closing stages to hand Arsene Wenger his first victory over a side managed by Jose Mourinho, but Chelsea held on to end Arsenal’s eight-game winning run to move to within six points of their first title in five years.

They will now clinch the title if they follow victory at in-form Leicester City on Wednesday with three points against Crystal Palace at Stamford Bridge next Sunday.

Arsenal entered the match knowing anything other than a victory would end their faint hopes of a first title since 2004, and Wenger made four changes to the side which sealed their place in the FA Cup final last weekend.

Chelsea knew victory would hand them the chance to seal with title with victory at Leicester in midweek, and started the game with no recognised striker, as Drogba was dropped to the bench with Eden Hazard leading the attack as the lone front man.

The change of personnel did little to prevent a frenetic start to the game as both sides pushed for the advantage before a string of penalty incidents followed.

Cesc Fabregas: Booked for simulation by Michael Oliver

Oscar appeared to have his heels clipped by full-back Bellerin on eight minutes as the Brazilian threatened to get in behind the Arsenal defence, but Oliver was unmoved.

Oscar was involved again on 16 minutes when Arsenal ‘keeper Ospina collided with him after he was played through by Fabregas and chipped an effort towards goal. Bellerin cleared the goal-bound effort before play resumed after the Brazilian received treatment for his injuries.

Replays suggested the penalty kick and a red card may well have been warranted by Ospina’s rash challenge.

Fabregas, who made his return to Arsenal after leaving in 2011, received a hostile reception at times, none more so than when he was booked for simulation after a challenge from Cazorla on 23 minutes.

Eden Hazard: Jostle for possession with Hector Bellerin

Oliver was in the spotlight shortly after when Cahill’s apparent block of Cazorla’s shot with his arm went unpunished.

Chelsea produced the move of the game when Willian played an incisive pass into his compatriot Ramires before the Brazilian was foiled by Ospina’s smart save.

Oscar was withdrawn at the interval after developing signs of concussion at the break, and Drogba, who has often been the scourge of Arsenal, entered the fray.

The intensity of the game dropped in the second period as Chelsea sat deep and looked to hit Arsenal on the counter. The inclusion of Welbeck late injected some pace in the game as Arsenal produced a late push for the three points.

Ozil and Welbeck failed to steer Nacho Monreal’s cross from the left on target as Chelsea’s defensive unit, as it had done throughout the game, held firm until the end where the final whistle was greeted with wild celebrations by the Chelsea players.

Player ratings

Arsenal: Ospina (7), Bellerin (7), Mertesacker (6), Koscielny (7), Monreal (7), Coquelin (7), Cazorla (7), Ramsey (6), Ozil (7), Sanchez (6), Giroud (7).

Used subs: Walcott (5), Welbeck (6).

Chelsea: Courtois (8), Ivanovic (8), Cahill (8), Terry (9), Azpilicueta (7), Ramires (6), Fabregas (7), Matic (7), Willian (6), Hazard (7), Oscar (7).

Used subs: Zouma (4), Drogba (6), Cuadrado (5).

Man of the Match: John Terry.

Decoding the dress code: how to do black tie

The problem is that ‘black tie’ is quite broad. As Debretts puts it: ‘For ladies, a smart dress (such as a cocktail dress) is appropriate. It can be long or short, as long as it’s not too short. It need not be black.’

Over the years the description has also become somewhat further muddied. So much is now available to us as shoppers that in order to find a truly elegant dress we need to have the ability to sift through layer upon layer of split-to-thigh, clingy polyester horrors that look more at home on the ladies of TOWIE, despite being categorised under ‘black tie’ by the retailer.

SHOP: 20 Black tie dresses uner £300

So, what does black tie really mean and what rules should we follow? Here are our expert tips for nailing the dress code…

Be aware that you have options
“It stems from the men’s outfit – a dinner jacket and a black tie, literally – and the idea is your meant to compliment that look,” explains Astrid Joss, fashion and beauty editor at Brides magazine. In terms of length, as Debretts explains, black tie can mean long, midi or short (though not too short) in length, so, unless your invite advises on a specific length within the black tie code, the choice is up to you.

“I personally think you’ve got to go long,” says Joss, “but if you can’t wear long at least try and go below-the-knee or three-quarter (midi) length – keep the skirt full and think Dior 1950s, it’s a lot smarter and you can dress it up.”

Short, midi and full-length can all work for a black tie do: from left, Julia Roberts, Eva Herzigova and Kate Hudson. Photos: Rex

For stylist Martha Ward, the specifications are less strict: “The thing I’m always called upon by my girlfriends is the anxiety over ‘black tie’ – the eternal question: What to wear? And it’s simple really: a nice dress. It could be slim line, it could be structured, it could be empire line, it could even be voluminous. It doesn’t matter as long as it looks ‘smart’.”

Our top tips would be to avoid anything too tight and anything that falls more than an inch or so above the knee.

SHOP: 20 black tie dresses under £300

Don’t be afraid of colour
“The key is that it doesn’t have to be black,” says Ward. “I attended a black tie dinner recently in a hot pink Roksanda dress and was the only girl in colour, and that’s quite typical. And a huge oversight. Colour and print works too!”

Go for bold colours and florals: from left, Michelle Williams, Martha Ward and Alicia Vikander. Photos: Rex

John Lewis’s current bestsellers in occasion wear are floral pieces – so don’t be afraid to go bold.

Dress for your shape and size
“When choosing an evening dress for a black tie event always ensure you dress for your size and shape,” says Donna Stamp, womenswear buyer at John Lewis. “A long, flowing gown will generally look great on taller women, whilst petite women tend to suit a 50s prom dress or something more fitted that cuts off at the knee.”

5ft 10′ Blake Lively can pull off long flowing gowns, while 5ft 1′ Kristen Bell suits shorter, more structured styles. Photos: Rex

SHOP: 20 black tie dresses under £300

What about a black tie wedding?
A wedding invite specifying a black tie dress code can easily leave you in a spin. Do the same guidelines apply? “Black tie is black tie, there’s absolutely no difference at a wedding,” says Joss.

However, there are some rules you should bear in mind: Should you wear a hat? “When it comes to a wedding, you do not wear a hat with a long dress. You have to balance out the look – so, if you’re covered up in a long dress you wouldn’t put something massive on your head as well. Fascinators can work, if you can get one that goes with your outfit, but try and keep it small. If you’re really in doubt, just do a nod to something on your head, like a glittery clip or hair slide.”

Hair accessories should replace hats at a black tie wedding: from left, Kirsten Dunst, Laura Bailey and Allison Williams. Photo: Rex

Can you wear black? “Yes, absolutely. I think that’s really stylish. But keep black seasonal – keep it in winter so don’t wear it in the summer and I’d say probably if it is more of an evening event. The only rule is don’t wear white, cream or ivory. You should never go there, long or short, especially long. I’ve seen people do it and it’s so unbelievably, jaw-droppingly wrong.”

READ: Best shops for black tie dresses

Think about your accessories
“Don’t leave it to the night to think about your accessories and make-up as a pair of killer heels, sparkling necklace or bright red lip can transform any outfit,” says Stamp.

Sienna Miller lets her red lips and statment necklace do the talking, while Diane Kruger’s simple clutch, shoes and natural make-up let her busy dress shine. Louise Roe showcases elegant, statement jewellery. Photos: Rex

When you’re shopping for a dress, try and think of your look as a whole, from shoes, to bag to jewellery to make sure everything is in tune. If you have plain, one-colour dress then your accessories can make a statement, if your dress has a bold print or pattern then the accessories are simply there to support and elevate it, so think along simpler lines. And avoid platform shoes – they’re the quickest way to make an outfit look cheap. Go for single soles instead.

White Supremacy: Exploring the Contours of Race and Power in America

It is widely believed that white supremacy is a racist ideology of hatred promoted by marginal extremist organizations like the Ku Klux Klan or the Aryan Nations. Often overlooked and neglected in this view are the structural inequalities that ensure the continued supremacy of whites over non-whites in all facets of social life. Also conveniently disregarded are the more subtle, yet frequent and numerous, manifestations of white supremacy that are woven into the fabric of Amerikan culture. In this sense, white supremacy is just as much of a social reality as it is an ideology. Indeed the two often go hand in hand, although this isn’t always the case.

There are many white people who hold supreme positions in the social hierarchy, over and above the masses of non-white people, without consciously adhering to any white supremacist ideology. This essay will explore the complex reality of white supremacy in America, examining its existence in the social structure, analyzing its cultural expressions, considering some of its ideological forms, and finally investigating its causes.

There can be little doubt that while supremacy is built into the very social structure of America when one considers the fact that the politico-economic structure of the U.S. was designed bywhite people to serve the interests of white people. For example, the Constitutional Congress that created the American  government consisted of 55 members and all of them were white, while 15 of them were African slave owners (Beard, pp.74-151).

There were absolutely zero Blacks, Latinos or Native Americans involved in forming the government of the U.S. To this day only one non-white has ever attained the presidency of the U.S. government, while Blacks make up only 7% of the U.S. Congress, with Latinos making up only 4% (Henschen and Sidlow, p. 110). Although subordinate races have now been assimilated into Amerikan society, the social structure still functions in such a way that maintains the supremacy of whites, excepting certain token reforms such as Affirmative Action. A simple look at the empirical data confirms this.

Aside from the political structure, virtually even,’ social indicator unequivocally confirms that whites are levels above non-whites in the most essential domains of social life.1The supremacy of whites on the economic terrain is indisputable and highly instructive. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, for example, in 2005 the median family income for whites was $62,300, compared to just $36,075,$38,558 and $37,387 for Blacks, Natives and Latinos respectively (U.S. Census Bureau [USCBJ. 2009. p. 38).

The CQ Researcher reported that in 2002 the median weekly income for white workers was $624, while Black workers earned $498 and Latinos a mere $423 (CQ Researcher [CQR], 2003, p. 601). In 2005, the poverty rate for white families was only 6.3%, while a staggering 23.4% of Black families, 21.1% of Native homes, and 21.4% of Latino households lived below the poverty line (LTSCB. pp. 38-39). And finally, the real unemployment rate for whites was 9.5%, compared to 37% of Blacks and 31% of Latinos (USCB, 374). All of these statistics illustrate the fact that whites in Amerika collectively enjoy economic privileges over and above their Black. Native and Latino counterparts.

There arc also glaring discrepancies in the domains of education and healthcare.

In 2005 86.1% of whites graduated high school, compared to 80.7% of Blacks and only 59.3% of Latinos. In the realm of higher education 28.4% of whites had college degrees, compared to just 18.5% of Blacks and 12.4% of Latinos (USCB. 145). A good generalmeasure of a people’s quality of healthcare is found in the infant mortality rate. In 2004, the infant mortality rate for whites was 5.7 per 100,000, compared to 13.8 for Blacks (ibid., p. 81).

Equally revealing is the fact that in 2005 only 14% of whites were without health insurance, while 20% of Blacks and a whopping 32% of Latinos were uninsured (ibid., p. 107). Although numbers can’t convey the human dimensions of emotion and suffering involved in these differences, they do make clear the objective disparities that exist between whites and non-whites in these crucial realms of social life. These disparities indicate that white supremacy is not merely a matter of personal prejudice, but rather a social reality rooted in the basic structure of Amerikan society.

White supremacy is not only built into the social structure of America, it is also deeply embedded in Amerikan culture. Many day-to-day instances of white supremacy are so commonplace they go practically unnoticed by most people. These are virtually impossible to quantify since they only play out on a subjective level, although many of them do have very tangible consequences. In his 2006 book Come Hell or High Water: Hurricane Katrina and the Color of Disaster, author Michael Eric Dyson points out that “although one may not have racial intent, one’s actions may nonetheless have racial consequence” (p. 20). Using Hurricane Katrina as an example, he shows how government negligence, although not the result of “active malice,” was ultimately caused by a “passive indifference” to the plight of poor Blacks in New Orleans. In other words, the Bush administration’s response, or lack thereof, to Hurricane Katrina was probably not motivated by a desire to see impoverished Blacks destroyed, but it didn’t really care enough to save them from ruin either. No matter the case, poor Blacks ended up suffering more than whites. Indeed, as Dyson goes on to explain:

active malice and passive indifference are but flip sides of the same racial coin… if one conceives of racism as a cell phone, then active malice is the ring tone at its highest volume, while passive indifference is the ring tone on vibrate. In either case, whether loudly or silently, the consequence is the same: a call is transmitted, a racial meaning is communicated. (Dyson, pp. 20-21)

Today most expressions of white supremacy take this form of passive indifference, allowing many whites to sit back in relative comfort and privilege while non-whites suffer the effects of while supremacy.

As was pointed out earlier, one need not adhere to white supremacist ideology to benefit from its effects. It has been empirically demonstrated that whites collectively enjoy a relative privilege over and above non-whites in the most important areas of social life- in the political structure, the economic structure, the educational structure, and even in the healthcare system. This is true whether or not individual whites are racist. The social reality of white supremacy is a fact beyond dispute, albeit still disputed. The ideology of white supremacy seeks to rationalize this social arrangement by attributing to white people an inherent superiority that makes their supremacy seem natural. Whereas most whites seek to ignore or deny their privilege, the white supremacist ideologue takes pride in it and seeks to justify, protect and expand it.Historically white supremacist ideology has taken on two main forms. The first is in the form of Christianity, from its very inception, America has always been a devoutly religious country, although today there is a noticeable trend towards secularism in urban cities and industrial areas. In his 2006 book American Theocracy: The Peril and Politics of Radical Religion, Oil, and Borrowed Money in the 21st Century, author Kevin Phillips notes that Amcrica is one of the most religious nations in the world, ranking alongside Israel, India and Iran (pp. 100-101). According to recent polls, 98% of Amerikans believe in the Christian God and 55% believe that the Bible is literally true, both percentages being much higher than in any other industrialized nation (ibid, p.98).What makes Israel and the U.$. unique in all of this, according to Phillips, is that each holds a widespread conviction that they share a sort of “covenant” with God and have a special relationship with Him as His “chosen people.”

In the case of the U.$., this ”covenant” pledged that the settlers would strictly adhere to “God’s Word” with a heavy emphasis on Old Testament scripture, in exchange for God’s paternal protection in the hostile “wilderness” of Amerika (ibid, pp. 125-131). This notion that Amcrikans have a covenant with God led to the imperial doctrine of “manifest destiny,” which asserted that it was God’s will for the white man to conquer and dominate all of North Amerika. Obviously African slaves and Native Americans were not part of this covenant. In fact they were among the very threats that the settlers were expecting God to protect them from. Most settlers viewed Africans and Indians as heathens, which allowed them to justify their subjugation and exploitation of the “heathens” on religious grounds.

This form of white supremacist ideology finds its ultimate expression in the modern-day doctrine of the Christian Identity movement. This doctrine “holds that white people arc the genuine descendants of the Biblical Hebrews… Jews and Blacks are the devil’s spawn” (CQR, 2009, p. 433). Although this teaching is rejected by mainstream Christians, many settlers believed that Africans were the cursed descendants of Noah’s son Abraham, and that slavery was in fact God’s punishment being inflicted on the wicked African heathens. Either way, Christianity was used to justify white supremacy, African slavery and indigenous genocide.

The second main form of white supremacy cloaks itself in secular language and masquerades as science. It is well known that Europeans have frequently devised bogus scientific constructs to justify their colonial conquests of non-European peoples. Scholar Samir Amin observed that genetics has been used to claim “that biological traits, sometimes called ‘racial’ characteristics, are the source of cultural diversity and create hierarchy within diversity” (Amin. 1989. p. 97). Now largely discredited in Europe, these pseudo-scientific theories took on a new impetus in Amerika with the 1994 publication of Richard J. Herrnstein and Charles Murray’s controversial book The Bell Curve: Intelligence und Class Structure in American Life. Drawing on a long tradition of imperial discourse, the authors argued that all races arc genetically predisposed to a general level of cognitive ability or IQ. Whites are shown to possess a much higher IQ than Blacks, Natives and Latinos, which accounts for their supremacy in social life (Herrnstein and Murray, 1994, pp. 319-339).

The authors claim that the reason non­whites tend to be the most impoverished, the most dependent on welfare, the most susceptible to crime and the most unemployed is because they have relatively low IQ levels. According to this logic, non-whites are not the victims of white supremacy; they arc simply condemned by nature to occupy the lowest rungs of the social hierarchy. The authors intended their book to be an argument against Affirmative Action. This type of self-serving logic is nothing more than an attempt to rationalize white supremacy and scale back some of the token reforms that non-whites won during the Civil Rights struggle.

There is a trend of thought amongst some of those who have been most victimized by white supremacy to attribute it to some malicious evil inherent to white people. This view is somewhat understandable to anyone who is familiar with the historical record of colonialism, the Atlantic slave trade or modern imperialism, but it falls short of supplying us with a materialist understanding of history and at times borders on the absurd. The most extreme expression of this type of thinking is found in the religious doctrine of the Nation of Islam (N.O.I ), which has had a considerable influence on Blacks in Amerika.

According to the N.O.I., white people have attained supremacy of the world through deceit, murder, slavery, rape, plunder, and all sorts of barbarity—which is true enough. But the N.O.I. claims that whites are wicked and immoral by nature. Elijah Muhammcd, founder of the N.O.I., taught that about sixty-six hundred years ago, the earth was a paradise inhabited by a highly advanced Black civilization. As the story goes, these Blacks were the original humans and they were righteous practitioners of Islam. Greed, murder, rape and evil were unknown to them. But along came a rogue scientist named Yacub who became discontent and embittered towards God. Out of spite he decided to unleash havoc upon the earth, ‘through genetic engineering he created a race of genetically recessive white “devils” that would destroy the Black man’s civilization and rule the world for six thousand years. The whites used trickery and deceit to set the Blacks against each other and eventually conquered the planet through murder, pillage and savagery (Malcolm X, 1965, pp. 173-183). From a historical standpoint this is obviously a religious myth, no different from the Christian Identity narrative. However it does have a certain emotional appeal to many who have suffered the vicious effects of white supremacy.

To avoid falling into these metaphysical traps which inevitably lead to simplistic reductions that depict whites as inherently evil, it is necessary to place our analysis of while supremacy in the historical context of European capitalist development. In his groundbreaking 1989 study Settlers: The Mythology of the White Proletariat, author J. Sakai offers a historical materialist interpretation of America that provides us with a solid theoretical framework for understanding white supremacy. He suggests that “the key to understanding Amerika is to see that it was a chain of European settler colonies that expanded into a settler empire” (Sakai, 1989, p. 5). Adding the concept of settler colonialism into our analysis allows as to see that capitalism was the driving force behind European immigration to North Amerika, the genocide committed against the Native Americans and the African slave trade. It will be shown on the basis of Sakai’s analysis that Europeans aren’t wicked by nature, but rather they were compelled to expand to every comer of the world, conquering non-Europeans in the process, by the very logic of the capitalist system: accumulation.

As the capitalist order was consolidated upon the ruins of feudal Europe, vicious class struggles were unleashed all across England. Millions of peasants were driven off their lands into the urban towns where they became wage laborers (i.e. proletarians). Living conditions were unimaginably miserable so that ”participating in the settler invasion of North America was a relatively easy way out of the desperate class struggle in England for those seeking a privileged life” (Sakai, p. 5). What compelled people to leave their homelands and travel across the Atlantic was “the chance to share in conquering Indian land” (ibid. p. 5). Thus it was the material conditions of capitalist development in England, combined with a desire for land, that drove so many Europeans to settle in colonial Amerika.

The problem was that North America was already inhabited by some 300 indigenous nations, encompassing over 10 million people (Sakai, p. 7). As the European influx continued and accelerated, it became necessary for the settlers to expand further westward, deeper into Indian territory. This brought the Natives and the settlers increasingly into conflict. Naturally the Indians were not eager to give up more of their lands, so the settlers simply “killed off millions of Native Americans to get the land and

profits they wanted” (ibid, p. 7). Between 1600 and 1900 the Indian population was reduced from 10 million to approximately 250,000 (ibid. p. 7). Sakai observes that “the point is that genocide was not an accident, not an excess, not the unintended side-effect of virile European growth. Genocide was the necessary- and deliberate act of the capitalists and their settler shock-troops. The ’Final Solution’ to the ‘Indian Problem…’” (ibid. p.7). Whites didn’t kill the Natives simply because they were racist and hated them, but rather, they killed them for their land plain and simple, using racism to justify their conquests. Once all the land was taken, the genocide stopped—or at least became less explicit.

Another problem the settlers confronted was that there was a major labor shortage in the colonies. Since the majority of settlers owned their own farmlands, there were very few, if any, wage laborers. At the time of the War of Independence, 15% of the population were temporary workers who would soon move on to become small capitalist farmers, while only 5% were laborers (Sakai, p. 10. emphasis mine). To solve this problem the settlers simply imported millions of African slaves to do all the necessary work of building up the colonies. There were white indentured servants too, but they were generally freed after four years of service and then moved on to become small farmers or small capitalists of some sort (ibid, p. 11). Not all whites owned slaves, but all benefited from slavery in some way. For example, slavery allowed white laborers to earn wages at least double those of their European counterparts—sometimes even earning up to six rimes more (ibid. p. 11. emphasis mine). Sakai points out that what’s important isn’t “…the individual ownership of slaves, but rather the fact that world capitalism in general and Euro-Amerikan capitalism in specific had forged a slave-based economy inwhich all settlers gained and took part” (ibid. p. 8). All of these factors go to show that the material basis of Amerika, from the beginning, was the oppression and exploitation of non-whites. Genocide and slavery are the twin pillars that hold Amerika up.

Throughout Amerikan history, whites have always had power over and above Natives, Blacks and Latinos. There is literally no point in history where this hasn’t been true. White supremacy is, and always has been, a basic reality of Amerikan life. The ideology of white supremacy, and racism more generally, is merely a cultural expression of this reality. As Noam Chomsky remarked,

“If you’re sitting with your boot on somebody’s neck, you’re going to hate them, because that’s the only way you can justify what you’re doing, so subjugation automatically yields racism” (Chomsky, 2004, p. 567). In this sense, it is not SO much racist thinking that is the problem, but rather the material conditions which give rise to such thoughts.

Eradicating white supremacy is not simply a matter of reeducating prejudiced whites to appreciate cultural diversity, but involves a much more concrete and systematic social approach. What is essential is that the relationship of power between whites and non-whites be changed. Justice dictates that white Americans right the wrongs of their ancestors since they all benefit, directly and indirectly, from the crimes of Amerika’s past. Reparations should be paid in the form of land and capital to all descendants of African slaves in America as well as all Native American nations. The Amerikan territory stolen from Mexico in the nineteenth century should likewise be returned to Mexico with full compensation. These are concrete steps that Amerika can take to desettlerize and give up the luxuries of white supremacy.


Federal Judge To 50 Cent: Pay Up $17 Million You Owe In Lawsuit

0 Cent has better luck “In Da Club” than in the court.

The rapper, whose real name is Curtis Jackson, has been ordered by Palm Beach County, Fla. judge Peter D. Blanc to pay $17 million to manufacturer Sleek Audio, following a series of legal dealings stemming from an arbitration in which the company successfully argued to the court that the “Hate It or Love It” rapper used their model and design for a set of headphones he tried to manufacture.

The judgment is the latest chapter in the legal battle between the rapperand the audio company, that began when the two were working together on a set of headphones he would endorse.

PHOTOS: It’s War! 23 Of The Biggest Music Feuds Of All Time

But when the “P.I.M.P.” rapper left the company, both sides sued the other, Sleek claiming that 50 Cent lifted their ideas and designs, while the rapper shot back that the company still owed him $261,000 in unpaid fees.

The case wound up in arbitration, where Sleek was awarded $11 million, plus $4,488,331 in attorney fees, resulting in 50 Cent suing in federal court to vacate the award, claiming amongst other things, the arbitrator’s decision was biased, influenced by racism, and the whole process was one-sided and short-sighted.

Read the court docs on RadarOnline.com.

The matter was remanded to Florida State Court, where Jackson’s motion to vacate was eventually denied.

Lawyers for 50 Cent say he is still seeking more than $6.5 million in damages from Sleek in another arbitration pending in New York.

In response, 50 has retained lawyer Craig Weiner and Michael Whitt to represent him on appeal.

PHOTOS: Famous Homes Where American Music History Was Made

Jackson’s counsel Stephen Savva says that his client will use all resources at his disposal to overturn “what he knows is an unjust and unfair result that was not supported by reason, facts or due process.”

“He is confident that an appellate court with the power to review the entire record will act in the interests of justice and do the right thing,” said his lawyer.

“Mr. Jackson is no stranger to adversity, so this represents yet another opportunity for him to turn something negative into a success.